Tuscany is one of the main important italian regions for the artistic, economical, cultural, historical and landscape heritage. The regional capital is Florence, that is also the main historical, artistic and economical administrative heart of Tuscany; the other main cities in Tuscany are: Arezzo, Grosseto, Livorno, Lucca, Massa-Carrara, Pisa, Pistoia, Prato and Siena.
Until 1859 Tuscany was an independent state born due to the Republic of Florence. Since then, it had been part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, then Kingdom of Italy and today is part of the Italian Republic. Since 1999, a regional holiday has been established for the 30th of November, in memory of the same date in 1786, when the death penalty was abolished in the Granducato of Tuscany.
Cradle of the Renaissance, so much that, during this period, great works characterised by innovative stylistic elements were carried out, such as San Lorenzo’s and Santo Spirito’s Basilica in Florence, the Cathedral and Palazzo Piccolomini in Pienza, the Church of San Biagio in Montepulciano. The summit was reached between the end of 15th and the beginning of the 16th Century, with the biggest masters of always in Florence: Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti e Raffaello Sanzio, who, even if of the Marches, worked in Tuscany during that period.