Siena is located in the heart of Tuscany in the centre is known by its artistic heritage and for its famous horse race that is twice a year in the special location of Piazza del Campo.
The first news about Siena are of the period pf the Roman emperor Augusto when Siena was a roman colony with the name Saena Iulia. Probably an Etruscan village existed before the Romans. At the beginning of Middle Age we do not have news about Siena, but in X century Siena is the centre of important commercial roads that went in direction of Rome and so it became a very important city, in fact in XII century it started to increase its territory and to make alliances. It became an important commercial centre. Its increasing of its powers caused the fights against Florence: one of the most famous battle is that one in Monataperti in 1260 that Siena won against Florence. But in 1269 Siena lost against Florence in Colle Val d’Elsa battle that gave the power to the Government of Nine, of the party of Guelfi. During this government, Siena reached its greatest power in culture and in economics. After the plague of 1348 The decadence of Republic of Siena started up to the 1555 when Siena was conquered by the empire of Carlo V, that gave the territory of Siena to Florence in order to thank them for the support during the war.